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Gram Positive

Gram-Positive: Gram-positive bacteria retain the color of the crystal violet stain in the Gram stain. This is characteristic of bacteria that have a cell wall composed of a thick layer of a particular substance (called peptidologlycan).
The Gram-positive bacteria include staphylococci ("staph"), streptococci ("strep"), pneumococci, and the bacterium responsible for diphtheria (Cornynebacterium diphtheriae) and anthrax (Bacillus anthracis).
Along with cell shape, Gram staining is a rapid method used to differentiate bacterial species. In traditional and even some areas of contemporary microbiological practice, such staining, alongside growth requirement and antibiotic susceptibility testing, and other macroscopic and physiologic tests, forms the full basis for classification and subdivision of the bacteria.
Historically, the kingdom Monera was divided into four divisions based primarily on Gram staining: Firmicutes (positive in staining), Gracilicutes (negative in staining), Mollicutes (neutral in staining) and Mendocutes (variable in staining). Based on 16S ribosomal RNA phylogenetic studies of the late microbiologist Carl Woese and collaborators and colleagues at the University of Illinois, the monophyly of the gram-positive bacteria has been challenged, with striking productive implications for the therapeutic and general study of these organisms. Based on molecular studies of 16S sequences, Woese recognised twelve bacterial phyla, two being gram-positive: high-GC gram-positives and low-GC gram-positives (where G and C refer to the guanine and cytosine content in their genomes), which are now referred to by these names, or as Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The former, the Actinobacteria, are the high GC content gram-positive bacteria and contains genera such as Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Streptomyces. The latter, the Firmicutes, are the "low-GC" gram-positive bacteria, which actually have 45%–60% GC content, but lower than that of the Actinobacteria

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National symposium and workshops related to Gram Positive are
• Antimicrobial Resistance Workshop
• The fifth International Conference on Gram-Positive Pathogens
• Challenges and Solutions in the Development of New Diagnostic Tests to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance
• Antimicrobial Suscepti-bility Testing and Surveillance of Resistance in Gram-positive Cocci
• Antibiotic Resistance: Implications For Global Health And Novel Intervention Strategies • Food Microbiology Workshop
• Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Workshop
• New Compounds & New Strategies to Live with Antibiotic Resistance
• Workshop on Gram Positive Aerobic Resistance in the ICU
• Tio2 mediated photocatalytic inactivation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using fluorescent light
• Infectious Disease: Resistance is Futile-SuperDrugs for SuperBugs
• A Canada-UK Workshop: "Beating the Bugs"
• BSAC Spring Meeting & AGM 2013
• Protein glycosylation and secretion in Gram-positive bacteria
• The InnoMol Proteomics

• Carbon and Nitrogen Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria: A Written Symposium
• 2nd International Symposium Resistant Gram-Positive Infections (RGPI 2004)
• Economic challenges of gram-positive infection. Symposium held in Florence, Italy, Spring 1992
• Antimicrobial Stewardship: New Strategies for the Battle Against Gram-Positive Microbial Resistance
• Laboratory Diagnosis & Surveillance Of Drug-Resistant Infections
• Development of Gram Stain Alternatives for Use with Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria
• Issues with Glycopeptides in the Treatment of Serious Gram-Positive Infections
• Nutrition and Infection,Prologue and Progress Since 1968
• Infectious Disease Association of California
• Advancing solutions to evolving resistance
• 8th International Symposium On Antimicrobial Agents And Resistance
• 18th Symposium on Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
• URICA Symposium
• 3rd New Zealand Microbial Ecology Consortium symposium
Relevant Conferences:
• 2012 International Conference on Gram-Positive Pathogens
• 5th. international Conference on Gram-positive Microorganisms
• 6th Conference on Functional Genomics of Gram-Positive Microorganisms - 16th International Conference on Bacilli
• Functional Genomics of Gram-positive Microorganisms: 11th International Conference on Bacilli
• International Conference on Gram Positive Pathogens
• Superbugs and Superdrugs 2015
• 7th International Conference on Gram-positive Microorganisms.
Relevant Society and Associations:
• Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology
• Argentinian Association of Microbiology
• Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society
• Perspectives of the American Phytopathological Society
• Association of bacteriophage particles with toxin production
• American Phytopathological Society
• British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
• American Society for Microbiology
• Croatian Society of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology
• European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
• US National Institutes of Health and the European Commission's Directorate for Health Research
• Society for Critical Care

• Northern Antibiotics Oy (EUROPE)
• Paratek Pharmaceuticals Inc ( AMERICA)
• Care-Tech Laboratories ( AMERICA)
• Ibis Biosciences ( AMERICA)
• Micurx Pharmaceutical (AMERICA)
• Micurx Pharmaceutical Inc (AMERICA)
• Smaart Pharmaceutticals( ASIA)
• Lab M Ltd( EUROPE)
• BioMio (EUROPE)
• R.K.BIO-Medical Science- Pvt.Ltd(ASIA)

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This page was last updated on 29th Aug, 2015

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