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DNA Sequence

DNA sequencing is the method of determining the exact order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It contains any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The beginning of express DNA sequencing methods has greatly enhanced biological and medical research and discovery.
Knowledge of DNA sequences has become necessary for basic biological research, and in numerous realistic fields such as diagnostic, biotechnology, forensic biology, virology and biological systematics. The fast speed of sequencing reached with modern DNA sequencing technology has been implementing in the sequencing of complete DNA sequences, or genomes of numerous types and species of life, including the human genome and other complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial species.An example of the results of automated chain-termination DNA sequencing.The first DNA sequences were attained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography.
Use of sequencing
DNA sequencing may be used to examined the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons), full chromosomes or entire genomes. Sequencing provides the order of individual nucleotides in DNA or RNA (commonly represented as A, C, G, T, and U)extracted from cells of animals, plants, bacteria, archaea, or almost any other source of genetic information. This is useful for:
• Molecular biology – studying the genome itself, how proteins are generate, what proteins has been produce, recognizing new genes and relations with diseases and phenotypes, and identifying potential drug targets.
• Evolutionary biology – studying how different organisms are connected and how they evolved.
• Metagenomics – Detecting species present in a body of water, sewage, dirt, debris filtred from the air, or swab samples of organisms. Useful in ecology, epidemiology, microbiome research, and other fields.
Less-precise material is produced by non-sequencing techniques like DNA fingerprinting. This information may be easier to achieve and is useful for:
• Detect the presence of known genes for medical purposes (see genetic testing)
• Forensic identification
• Parental testing

Basic methods
Maxam-Gilbert sequencing:
Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert issued a DNA sequencing method in 1977 created on chemical modification of DNA and subsequent cleavage at specific bases.Also known as chemical sequencing, this method permitted purified samples of double-stranded DNA to be used without further cloning. This method's use of radioactive labeling and its technical complexity depressed extensive use after refinements in the Sanger methods had been made.
Chain-termination methods:
The chain-termination method established by Frederick Sanger and coworkers in 1977 has become the demanded method of choice, owed to its relative comfort and reliability. When created, the chain-terminator method used fewer toxic chemicals and lower amounts of radioactivity than the Maxam and Gilbert method. Because of its comparative comfort, the Sanger method was soon mechanized and was the method used in the first generation of DNA sequencers. Sanger sequencing is the only method which prevailed from the 80's until the mid-2000s. Over that time, great improvements were made in the technique, such as fluorescent labeling, capillary electrophoresis, and general automation.

National Symposium And Workshop:
• National Workshop on "Advances and Challenges In Next Generation Sequencing & Bioinformatics of Genome Analysis", March 28-30, 2011, India.
• EMBO Symposium — Long regulatory RNAs , 13 Sep 2014 → 18 Sep 2014, Poland.
• Workshop on Mathematics for Life Sciences, 14 Sep 2014 → 16 Sep 2014, Algeria.
• IEEE Cluster Workshop: PBio 2014, 26 Sep 2014, Madrid, Spain.
• The 2nd International Workshop on Big Data in Bioinformatics and Healthcare Informatics, 27 Oct 2014, United States.
• EMBL-EBI-Wellcome Trust workshop on Proteomics Bioinformatics, 10 Nov 2014 → 14 Nov 2014, United Kingdom.
• NGS 2014 Nordic — Next Generation Sequencing Symposium, 20 Nov 2014, Denmark.
• BioInfoSummer 2014: Summer Symposium in Bioinformatics, 01 Dec 2014 → 05 Dec 2014, Australia.
• Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing, 04 Jan 2015 → 08 Jan 2015, United States.
• Keystone Symposia: Precision Genome Engineering and Synthetic Biology, 11 Jan 2015 → 16 Jan 2015, USA.

OMICS Group one of the renowned Open Access publishers is proud to serve the scientific community with a team of 20 k Editorial board members, close to 300 Open Access Journals and grounding close to century platforms for upcoming and ongoing research hits in mean with conferences. In addition OMICS too provides a rapid review process of 21 days with the reading number touching 2 Million. What else it requires if scientific community could find a single platform where the presented research is easily published, OMICS serves the same duo. Each and every research effort has a scientific concept behind it which needed to be upfronted to the scientific community to increase the probabilistic discovery from conceptualization of scientific ideas.

Related Association:
• Association of forensic DNA analysts and administrators.
• NP society of DNA.
• International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi.
• Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India.
• Institute of Molecular Biology, Hong Kong.
• European Molecular Biology Lab (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.
• Imperial College Genetics and Genomics Research Institute, Hammersmith Hospital, London.
• National Human Genome Research Institute, USA.
• Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia.
• National Institute of Genetics, Japan.

Related Conferences:
• International Conference on Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, London (Sep 26-27, 2014)
• International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Science, Madrid (Nov 10-11, 2014)
• International Conference on Bioinformatics and Molecular Biology, London(Aug 21-22, 2014)
• International Conference on Computational and Systems Biology, Kuala Lumpur (Aug 25-26, 2014)
• International Conference on Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, Osaka (Oct 12-13, 2014)
• International Conference on MicroRNAs and Single Molecule Biology, Singapore , (Jan 08-09, 2015)
• International Conference on Bioinformatics, Berlin, (Sep 15-16, 2014)
• International Conference on Cell and Stem Cell Engineering, Rome, (Sep 18-19, 2014)
• OMICS,4th International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, August 10-12, 2015 UK.
• International Conference on Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Dubai, (Jan 30-31, 2015.

Related Companies:
• Affymetrix, UK.
• Amgen, USA.
• Applera, Norwalk, Connecticut, United States.
• Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California.
• Asper Biotech, Estonia.
• Celera Genomics, USA.
• DeCODE genetics, Iceland.
• Genentech, San Francisco, CA.
• Genetix, Hampshire, UK.
• GenePeeks, New York.

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This page was last updated on 31st Jan, 2015

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