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Climatology

Climate is expected. Weather what will get. Climatology is a Greek word "place, zone" is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of Climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and Climate system to projections of future climate. A climatologist attempts to discover and explain the impacts of climate so that society can plan its activities, design its buildings and infrastructure, and anticipate the effects of adverse conditions. Although climate is not weather, it is defined by the same terms, such as temperature, precipitation, wind, and solar radiation.

Climatology is approached in a variety of ways. Paleoclimatology seeks to reconstruct past climates by examining records such as ice cores and tree rings (dendroclimatology). Paleotempestology uses these same records to help determine hurricane frequency over millennia. The study of contemporary climates incorporates meteorological data accumulated over many years, such as records of rainfall, temperature and atmospheric composition. Knowledge of the atmosphere and its dynamics is also embodied in models, either statistical or mathematical, which help by integrating different observations and testing how they fit together. Modeling is used for understanding past, present and potential future climates. Historical climatology is the study of climate as related to human history and thus focuses only on the last few thousand years.

Climate research is made difficult by the large scale, long time periods, and complex processes which govern climate. Climate is governed by physical laws which can be expressed as differential equations. These equations are coupled and nonlinear, so that approximate solutions are obtained by using numerical methods to create global climate models. Climate is sometimes modeled as a stochastic process but this is generally accepted as an approximation to processes that are otherwise too complicated to analyze.

Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any unbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth.

The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas). These models predict an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher latitudes.

Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:
• A simple radiant heat transfer model that treats the earth as a single point and averages outgoing energy
• This can be expanded vertically (radiative-convective models), or horizontally
• Finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models discretise and solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange
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Omics conferences :
As per allconferences.com 8-20-2014 there are 21 results Displayed when given Climatollogy as a key word.

• 2014 21st Conference on Applied Climatology.
• 20th Conference on Applied Climatology.
• 14th EMS Annual Meeting & 10th European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC).
• European conference on applied climatology (ecac 2014)
• 21st Conference on Applied Climatology
• ICMCAP 2014: International Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics
• 12th International Conference on Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics
• National Seminar on Application of Geomatics in Climatology
• 8th European Conference on Applied Climatology
• International Society of Medical Hydrology and Climatology
• 11th International Conference on Meteorology,Climatology.

Symposiums :
• London Symposium on Climate Change.
• 3rd Climate Change Symposium - Scope- PICES
• 2nd Climate Change Symposium - Scope- PICES
• Climate Change Symposium on Sustaining Coastal Cities.
• Climate Change Research Symposium - University of Oregon.
• Eighth ITU Symposium on ICTs, the Environment and Climate Change: Smart Sustainable Cities.
• MIT Sea Grant Hosts a Climate Change Symposium on Sustaining Coastal Cities.
• Focus on Climate Change - Dahrendorf Symposium.
• 2015 | 05 | ASABE 1st Climate Change Symposium.
• Symposium on Climate Change and Impact Assessment.
• 2014 symposium on extreme weather: impacts, challenges and adaptations.

Workshops :
• Fourth JCOMM Workshop on Advances in Marine Climatology.
• CLIMAR-II: Second JCOMM Workshop on Advances in. Marine Climatology.
• Snow Climatology of the Eastern Sierra Nevada.
• Workshop on Econometric Applications in Climatology.
• Marine data and climatology workshop.
• Satellite climatology workshop.
• Workshop on rainfall climatology.
• Global Climate Change Alliance workshop.
• SAARC Workshop Climate Change and Disasters
• Workshop on Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk.

Socities :
• International Society of Medical Hydrology and Climatology
• American Meteorological Society
• Climate Change - American Meteorological Society.
• Climate Change: Evidence & Causes | Royal Society.
• Climate Change - Geological Society of America.
• Climate Change Campaign | National Audubon Society.
• The Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society.
• The Society of Environmental Journalists.
• Institute of Global Environment and Society.
• British Ecological Society.
• Civil society and the Climate Change Process.
• Global Climate Change society.
• The Geological Society.

Companies which are responsible for climate change:
• Former USSR (oil, gas, coal)
• Poland (coal)Fuel & Cement
• Coal india.
• British coal.
• National Iranian Oil Company.
• Saudi Aramco -Fuel & Cement.
• China coal and cement.
• ChevronTexaco. Fuel & Cement.
• Royal Dutch Shell. Methane Leaks.
• ExxonMobil. Methane Leaks

This page will be updated regularly.

This page was last updated on 08th Dec, 2014

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