Principles and approaches of environmental sciences are applicable in several areas of development. These areas are studied as scope of the subject. Environmental science has a vast scope since it covers a wide range of subject matters or issues related to our complex life-supporting system. Scope of the subject can be described in terms of major areas of applicability as well as career opportunities related to the subject. Three major areas of applicability of the subject are :
(i) Management of natural resources,
(ii) Conservation of ecosystem and biodiversity,
(iii) Prevention and control of pollution.
In addition, environmental science plays a key role in solving complex environmental issues of varying scale, including climate change, ozone layer depletion, energy crisis, desertification, urbanization, population explosion, and so on.
Scope of the subject in terms of career opportunities is vast. For the last two decades, environmental science has been associated with many career opportunities. Major career options related to the subject can be described as follows:
INDUSTRIES: Industries need to show compliance against a number of environmental norms. Hence, environment experts are needed to guide the industries for adopting clean technologies, controlling pollution, disposing the wastes, and carrying out environmental audit.
CONSULTANCY: Environment consultancies are hired by governments, industries, and NGOs for carrying out different types of laboratory-based analyses or field-based studies, which are often required in environment impact assessment (EIA) and other compliance processes.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D): R&D opportunities in this area include studying different types of pollution and their causes and effects. It also includes development of clean and efficient technologies for future. Scientists, researchers, and analysts are some of the common career profiles.
ACADEMICS: Environmental science is taught at almost every level of education, that is, from school to university level. A large number of teachers or academicians are required to fulfil this need.
GREEN MARKETING: Skilled manpower is required to promote eco-friendly products in market. Environmental quality certifications like ISO-14000 are also being incorporated in marketing strategy—this creates additional career opportunities.
GREEN MEDIA: In order to generate awareness about the environment, there is an immense need for skilled manpower in the field of print and electronic media. A number of magazines and newspapers regularly publish articles on environmental theme, for example, Down to Earth, a magazine published by Centre for Science and Environment.
GREEN ADVOCACY: Environmental lawyers are emerging as major players in ensuring proper implementation of environmental norms, laws, and programmes. Public Interest Litigation (PIL) empowers a common man to fight against any anti-environment activity.
• NGOs: These days, most of the environmental programmes are being implemented through NGOs, with the help of funds from national and international agencies. Green-peace, CI, WWF, CSE, CEE, TERI, Tarun Bharat Sangh, and Vatavaran are some examples of environmental NGOs.
• GOVERNMENT JOBS: A number of conventional jobs are available in government bodies such as environmental ministry, pollution control boards, national parks, and biosphere reserves.
• INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES: Various international agencies such as UNEP, IUCN, TSBF, and World Bank require qualified human resources to implement environment-related projects.
Today, the world is facing numerous environmental problems, ranging from local problems such as ground water depletion to global problems such as climate change. These problems can be solved only when everyone cares for the environment; for that everyone needs to be informed about the causes, consequences, and remedial measures of different environmental problems. In order to achieve this goal, environmental science is promoted and taught at different educational levels. The subject bears immense importance as it aims at saving the integrity of the life-supporting environment of earth, which is a unique planet that sustains life. Importance of this subject can be described in terms of the various objectives that it fulfils for saving the environment. So far, seven such objectives have been identified:
• It guides us to know how our developmental and day-to-day activities affect environment and how we are affected by changes in the environmental conditions.
• It guides us to create a pollution-free environment (that is, clean air, water, land, and food) by adopting different methods of preventing and controlling pollution.
• It guides us to utilize our natural resources such as water, forest, minerals, and fossil fuels in an efficient manner, that is, with maximum utility and minimum wastage, by adopting conservation and recycling strategies.
• It guides common public to live an eco-friendly lifestyle by adopting the above three features, that is, knowing environmental implications of one’s activities, preventing and controlling pollution, and utilizing the resources efficiently in day-to-day activities.
• It guides industries to operate in an eco-friendly mode by adopting clean and efficient technologies and installing pollution control systems.
• It guides us to solve complex global environmental problems such as climate change, ozone-layer depletion, desertification, and energy crisis by using different interdisciplinary tools and approaches.
• It guides the entire development process to become sustainable by ensuring equal distribution of natural resources between present and future generations, as well as by caring for nature in every walk of life in a holistic manner.
GLOBAL BUSINESS/RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
The Research of Environmental Sciences (RES), set up in 1988, is a total insightful journal careful to the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, and regulated by the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES). As a national five star magazine, RES has been recorded on the plans of the Core Journals of China and the Key Magazine of China Technology. RES was regarded with the title of the China's Outstanding Academic Journals with International Influences in 2012, the Outstanding S&T Journals of China in 2011, and the RCCSE Authoritative Academic Journals of China of 2011-2012. The journal is separated and recorded by a lot of overall databases including the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD), Chinese S&T Paper Citation Database (CSTPCD), Core Journals Database of China (Selection), Database of Outstanding ST Journals of China , Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS, UN), Chinese Medical Citation Index (CMCI), CA, CSA:NS, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, CABI, Global Health, ZR, VINITI, JST and IC; The RES is circulating the first and the most recent examinations related to normal sciences that mirror the all-inclusive and neighborhood progresses, new speculations, new advances and new approaches, covering the controls including aerate and cool, maritime condition, commonplace organic condition, soil condition, ecotoxicology, environmental treatment propels, cleaner age advances and methods, solid waste, biological watching and examination, and regular orchestrating and organization. This journal serves perusers from intelligent research associations, schools and universities. Starting late, more than 99% of disseminated papers were financially supported by wanders at ordinary or bigger sums, and over 85% were maintained by fundings at national levels.
Investigates in the field of biological science, for instance, Aquatic Sciences, Energy Resources and Conservation, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Biology, Environmental Economics, Environmental Engineering, Environmental Physics, Environmental Health - Public Health, Environmental Law - Policy - Eco Justice, Environmental Management, Environmental Toxicology, Global Change, Climate Change, Monitoring, Environmental Analysis - Monitoring, Nature Conservation - Biodiversity, Pollution and Remediation, Soil Science, Sustainable Development.
The University of Sydney, Australia; University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna; Monash University, Australia; University of New England, Shimane University, Japan; University of Michigan, USA.
GLOBAL RESEARCH CENTRES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Conard Environmental Research Area, Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research, Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Energy and Environmental Research Center Global Energy Network Institute, Global Environment Facility, Institute on the Environment
OVERALL COMPANIES RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
7C Solarparken, A2Z Group, Ballard Power Systems, Carnegie Wave Energy, LTD, DelSolar Co, LTD, EnerDynamic Hybrid Technologies Inc., Finavera Renewables, INC, Infigen
Energy, Innergex Renewable Energy Inc., LDK Solar Co, LTD
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